InstaLinks :  make it easier to assume past the problem however related to the problem from UPSC prelims and Mains examination standpoint. These linkages offered on this ‘trace’ format make it easier to body potential questions in your thoughts that may come up(or an examiner may think) from every present occasion. InstaLinks additionally join each challenge to their static or theoretical background. This helps you examine a subject holistically and add new dimensions to each present occasion that can assist you assume analytically


Desk of Contents:

GS Paper 1:

1. 60% of India liable to earthquake


GS Paper 3:

1. Bio Fuels and Bio Refineries

2. Centre guidelines out a rise in MSP for cotton, however farmers search extra


Content material for Mains Enrichment:

1. Farm to Kind Philosophy


Info for Prelims:

1. Lion @ 47: Imaginative and prescient for ‘Amrutkal’

2. QR Code for LPG Cylinders

3. How nasal vaccines work?

4. Not every part we name AI is Synthetic Intelligence

5. The uncontrolled re-entries of Satellites

6. Why SEBI is phasing out the inventory trade route for buybacks?

7. Arecanut Imports

8. Sahitya Academy awards introduced

9. UNSC Decision 2593



60% of India liable to earthquake

GS Paper 1

Syllabus: Vital Geophysical Phenomena reminiscent of earthquakes


Supply: DTE

 Course: The article tries to clarify the phenomenon of Earthquakes and earthquake danger in India.

 Context: In accordance with the Union Minister of State (unbiased cost) for S&T and Earth Sciences, round 60% of the landmass of India (masking all states) is liable to earthquakes of various shaking intensities.


About Earthquake: 


  • An earthquake is the shaking of the floor (happens with out warning) of the Earth ensuing from a sudden launch of power within the Earth’s lithosphere that creates seismic waves.
  • It’s tectonic in origin and outcomes from the launch of collected stress of the shifting lithospheric or crustal plates.
  • The earth’s crust is split into seven main plates (and several other minor plates), which transfer slowly and constantly over the earth’s inside.
  • Causes of earthquakes could be pure (tectonic, volcanic) and anthropogenic (mining actions, development of dams, nuclear-chemical explosions).
  • The prevalence of an earthquake in a populated space could trigger quite a few casualties and accidents in addition to intensive harm to property.


Earthquake waves are mainly of two sorts:

  • Physique waves: Generated as a result of launch of power on the focus and transfer in all instructions travelling by the physique of the earth. There are two varieties of physique waves.
P-waves or ‘major waves’ S-waves or secondary waves
  • Quicker and are the primary to reach on the floor.
  • Just like sound waves.
  • Vibrate parallel to the path of the wave.
  • Journey by gaseous, liquid and strong supplies.
  • Arrive on the floor with a while lag.
  • Journey solely by strong supplies, serving to scientists to grasp the construction of the inside of the earth.
  • Course of vibrations of S-waves is perpendicular.
  • Can create troughs and crests within the materials by which they go.
  • Floor waves (most damaging): The physique waves work together with the floor rocks and generate new units of waves referred to as floor waves, which transfer alongside the floor.
  • Shadow zones: These are particular areas the place the waves will not be reported by seismograph.


Measuring Earthquakes

  • The earthquake occasions are scaled both in response to the magnitude or depth of the shock.
  • The magnitude scale is called the Richter scale (0-10), indicating power launched through the quake.
  • The depth scale is known as after Mercalli (1-12), indicating the seen harm attributable to the occasion.


The Earthquake Threat in India:

  • India has been divided into 4 zones – II, III, IV and V – in response to the seismic zoning map of India ready by the Bureau of Indian Requirements (BIS). Zone V is seismically probably the most energetic area, whereas Zone II is the least.
  • Round 11% of the nation falls in Zone V, 18% in Zone IV, 30% in Zone III and the remaining in Zone II.


Causes for the Earthquake proneness in India:

  • The Indian plate is driving into Eurasia at a price of roughly 47 mm/12 months.
  • Himalayan belt: Collision between Indo-Australian plate with Eurasian plate causes numerous pressure in underlying rocks’ power, which is launched within the type of earthquakes.
  • Andaman and Nicobar Islands: Seafloor displacement and underwater volcanoes disturb the equilibrium of earth’s floor.
  • Deccan Plateau: The emergence of a fault line and power build-up alongside the fault line of the river Bhima (Krishna) close to Latur and Osmanabad (Maharashtra).
  • Rising inhabitants and unscientific land use for development make India a high-risk land for earthquakes.


Insta Hyperlinks:



Mains Hyperlinks:

Q. Why are the world’s fold mountain methods situated alongside the margins of continents? Convey out the affiliation between the worldwide distribution of Fold Mountains and the earthquakes and volcanoes. (UPSC 2014)

India pitching for enhanced growth of Biofuels

GS Paper 3

Syllabus: Conservation, Environmental Air pollution and Degradation


Supply: PIB 

Course: The article discusses biofuels, its classification and Indian efforts to advertise biofuels and method forward. 

Context: India, throughout its Presidency of G20, is emphasising on worldwide collaboration for power safety and enhanced growth of rising fuels like biofuel and hydrogen.


  • Authorities notified using hydrogen as automotive gas for gas cell autos on sixteenth September, 2016.
  • Oil CPSEs are organising 2G ethanol bio-refineries within the nation at Panipat (Haryana), Bathinda (Punjab), Numaligarh (Assam), Bargarh (Odisha) and one demonstration venture at Panipat. 

About Biofuels:

  • Biofuels are liquid or gaseous fuels primarily produced from biomass, and can be utilized to switch or can be utilized along with diesel, petrol or different fossil fuels for transport and different purposes.
  • Crops used to make biofuels are typically both excessive in sugar (reminiscent of sugarcane, sugarbeet), starch (reminiscent of maize and tapioca) or oils (reminiscent of soybean, rapeseed, coconut, sunflower).


Classes of biofuels:


  • 1st-generation biofuels are constituted of sugar, starch, vegetable oil, or animal fat utilizing standard know-how.
  • 2nd technology biofuels are produced from non-food crops, reminiscent of cellulosic biofuels and waste biomass (stalks of wheat and corn, and wooden).
  • third technology biofuels are produced from microorganisms like algae.



Indian efforts to advertise Biofuels:

  • Nationwide Coverage on Biofuels 2018: It goals to have country-wide mixing charges of 20% ethanol and 5% biodiesel by 2030. It additionally centered on utilizing 2G applied sciences with agricultural/industrial waste merchandise.
    • Nevertheless, by amendments to this coverage, authorities now goals to attain a mixing goal of 20% ethanol by 2025 reasonably than 2030.


  • Ethanol Blended Petrol (EBP) program: It goals to attain ethanol mixing as a way to scale back air pollution, preserve overseas trade, and so forth.
  • Pradhan Mantri JI-VAN (Jaiv Indhan – Vatavaran Anukool fasal awashesh Nivaran) Yojana: Launched in 2019 to create an ecosystem for business venture growth and R&D within the 2G Ethanol sector.
  • GOBAR (Galvanizing Natural Bio-Agro Sources) DHAN scheme: It focuses on managing and changing farm animal dung and strong waste into helpful compost, biogas, and bio-CNG, thereby holding villages clear and growing rural family earnings.
  • Repurpose Used Cooking Oil (RUCO): It goals to create an ecosystem that enables for the gathering and conversion of used cooking oil to biodiesel.


Manner forward:

  • The proposed expansions in 1G biofuel manufacturing want to consider broader land-use methods, figuring out land appropriate for power crops.
  • India must develop different feedstocks for biodiesel manufacturing.
  • Current frameworks just like the Clear Growth Mechanism may very well be leveraged to immediately fund R&D within the sector.


Insta Hyperlinks:



Prelims Hyperlinks: UPSC 2020

In accordance with India’s Nationwide Coverage on Biofuels, which of the next can be utilized as uncooked supplies for the manufacturing of biofuels?

  1. Cassava
  2. Broken wheat grains
  3. Groundnut seeds
  4. Horse gram
  5. Rotten potatoes
  6. Sugar beet

Choose the right reply utilizing the code given beneath:

(a) 1, 2, 5 and 6 solely

(b) 1, 3, 4 and 6 solely

(c) 2, 3, 4 and 5 solely

(d) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6


Ans: (a)

  • The Coverage expands the scope of uncooked materials for ethanol manufacturing by permitting use of sugarcane juice, sugar containing supplies like sugar beet, candy sorghum, starch containing supplies like corn, cassava, broken meals grains like wheat, damaged rice, rotten potatoes, unfit for human consumption for ethanol manufacturing.

Centre guidelines out a rise in MSP for cotton, however farmers search extra

GS Paper 3

Syllabus: Points associated to Minimal Help Costs


Supply: TH 

Course: The article highlights the idea of MSP – which means, targets, points, and so on. 

Context: Whereas cotton farmers in a number of states have referred to as for a rise within the crop’s MSP, the Centre has acknowledged that it’s monitoring the cotton output situation and can decide accordingly.

The idea of Minimal Help Value (MSP) in India:


  • Which means: It’s a coverage choice not enforceable by regulation – a form of market intervention by the Authorities of India to guard agricultural producers from a dramatic drop in farm costs throughout plentiful output years.


  • Goals:
    • It’s a value assure for farmer’s output supposed to forestall farmers from promoting their crops in misery and to purchase meals grains for public distribution.
    • For instance, if the market value for a commodity falls beneath the designated minimal value resulting from extreme manufacturing and a market imbalance, authorities companies will buy the entire amount produced by farmers on the declared minimal value.


  • Introduced by: The Cupboard Committee on Financial Affairs (chaired by the PM) based mostly on the suggestions of the Fee for Agricultural Prices and Costs (CACP) initially of the sowing season for particular crops.


  • Crops coated:
    • The federal government has introduced minimal assist costs (MSPs) for 22 specified crops in addition to a good and remunerative value (FRP) for sugarcane (complete 23).
    • 14 kharif crops, 6 rabi crops and two different business crops are mandated.


  • Points:
    • Lack of presidency equipment for procurement for all crops.
    • Majority of farmers stay uncovered underneath the MSP regime.
    • MS Swaminathan Fee suggestion of fixing MSP at 150% of manufacturing price stays unimplemented.


Case of cotton:

  • The MSP for medium staple cotton for 2022-23 kharif season is ₹6,080.
  • Although farmers mentioned they received costs a lot larger than MSP for his or her produce, it was insufficient given the rise in value of enter gadgets reminiscent of seeds, pesticides and fertilisers.


Insta Hyperlinks:



Mains Hyperlinks:

Q. What do you imply by the Minimal Help Value (MSP)? How will MSP rescue the farmers from the low-income entice? (UPSC 2018)


Content material For Mains

Farm to Fork Philosophy

Course: It may be used for instance of how personal gamers can play their half to encourage farmers in addition to affect shopper decisions.

Context: Hyderabad based mostly Shresta Pure Bioproducts Ltd goes past advertising and marketing, gross sales methods to assist farmers shifting away from chemical-free practices.

  • The corporate affords fixed assist to farmers to wean them off chemical inputs and shift to natural farming.
  • To create an assured market, it additionally procures, processes and markets the produce.
  • It additionally invests in huge consciousness programmes about natural farming and its advantages for human well being and the surroundings, to create shopper demand for the merchandise underneath the model identify ’24 Mantra’.
  • The corporate has grown from 40 farmers to 40,000 farmers, masking almost 81,000 hectares (ha) in 15 states.
  • Sresta’s checklist now consists of almost 200 merchandise, from flour, grains, pulses, millets, dry fruits and spices to flours, cold-pressed oil, pickles, cookies, culinary pastes, jams and ready-to-eat merchandise.
  • Farmers get Rs 200 to Rs 300 per 100kg greater than the chemical-based farming.


Info for Prelims:

Lion @ 47: Imaginative and prescient for ‘Amrutkal’

Supply: PIB

 Context:  Undertaking Lion doc titled “Lion @ 47: Imaginative and prescient for Amrutkal” has been ready by Ministry of Setting, Forest and Local weather Change.

The Undertaking is being applied within the Gir panorama in Gujarat which is the final dwelling of the Asiatic lion. It envisages panorama ecology-based conservation by integrating conservation and eco-development.


  • To safe & restore lions’ habitats for managing its rising inhabitants
  • Scale up livelihood technology and participation of native communities
  • To make India a worldwide hub of data on huge cat illness diagnostics and therapy
  • Create inclusive biodiversity conservation

State authorities of Gujarat additionally will get funding for conservation of wildlife underneath centrally sponsored scheme – Built-in growth of Wildlife Habitats.

Asiatic Lions:

  • Scientific identify: Panthera leo persica
  • IUCN Standing: Endangered, CITES: Appendix I, Wildlife Conservation Act: Schedule I
  • Barely smaller than African Lions
  • Probably the most hanging morphological character, which is at all times seen in Asiatic lions, and infrequently in African lions, is a longitudinal fold of pores and skin working alongside its stomach.
  • The fur ranges in color from ruddy-tawny, closely speckled with black, to sandy or buff-grey, generally with a silvery sheen in sure lights.
  • Males have solely reasonable mane development on the prime of the top, in order that their ears are at all times seen.


Insta Hyperlinks: Asiatic Lion


QR Code for LPG Cylinders

Supply: PIB

Context: A pilot examine for QR code tagging of cylinders has been undertaken by Indian Oil Company Ltd. (IOCL) at Madanpur Khadar Bottling Plant, Delhi.

Will probably be launched by the Indian Oil Company Restricted (IOCL) to assist stop gasoline theft from LPG gasoline cylinders, clear up problems with adulteration, unfair practices, pilferage, monitoring, tracing and guarantee higher stock administration of the cylinders.

How will it work?

  • QR Code might be posted on current cylinders and welded on new ones.
  • QR code could be learn by a digital system
  • It’s more likely to work in the identical method because the Aadhar card.
  • The LPG prospects will be capable of entry info in regards to the bought cylinder reminiscent of the place it was bottled, who’s the seller, when it was manufactured, refiling, security assessments, finding stolen cylinders, amongst different particulars.

QR Code:

  • A QR code consists of black sq. and dots.
  • They retailer info in each vertical and horizontal axes, which permits them to carry considerably extra information.


Insta Hyperlinks: Ujjwala Yojana


How nasal vaccines work?

  Supply: All the way down to Earth

Context: Although the present vaccines have been working successfully, researchers are growing different approaches to enhance effectiveness. 14 nasal vaccines are within the medical trial stage.

How do Immune System struggle pathogens?

The immune system has two distinct elements: mucosal and circulatory.


How nasal vaccines work?

  • Administered by way of nostril
  • The viral antigens supposed to stimulate the immune system could be taken up by immune cells throughout the lining of the nostril or tonsils.
  • Antigens within the vaccine induce B cells in mucosal websites to mature into plasma cells that secrete a type of IgA.
  • The IgA is then transported into mucosal secretions all through the physique, the place it turns into
  • If the SIgA antibodies within the nostril, mouth or throat goal SARS-CoV-2, they may neutralize the virus earlier than it may possibly drop down into the lungs and set up an an infection.
  • Benefit: Block virus on the entry level.


Insta Hyperlinks: Covid 19 vaccines


Not every part we name AI is Synthetic Intelligence

 Supply: All the way down to Earth

Context: Functions of AI have been distinguished within the current world, the newest one being ChatGPT.

What does AI imply?

  • A system to be referred to as an AI ought to exhibit some degree of studying and adapting.
  • Synthetic Slim Intelligence (ANI) – A selected system addressing a selected drawback. Slim AI is efficient solely in an space during which it’s skilled. EX – Fraud detection, facial recognition, social suggestions and so on.
  • Synthetic Normal Intelligence (AGI) – it mimics Human Intelligence. The system is developed utilizing neural networks. These neural networks work by feeding every information level by an interconnected community, adjusting the parameters. As increasingly information are fed by the community, the parameters stabilise; the ultimate final result is the “skilled” neural community, which may then produce the specified output on new information.
  • Therefore, it may be mentioned that actual AI i.e., AGI nonetheless is within the formulation stage. The AI that we expertise in every day lives (together with ChatGPT) are ANI.

What does AI must work?

  1. Prime quality, unbiased information
  2. Computational Infrastructure
  3. Improved fashions and algorithms
  4. Symbolic AI

Schemes in India to spice up AI:

  1. Nationwide Technique for AI – to develop an ecosystem for the analysis and adoption of Synthetic Intelligence i.e., #AIFOR ALL.
  2. Visveswaraya PhD Scheme
  3. Nationwide programme of accountable use of AI for Youth
  4. A founding member of the International Partnership on Synthetic Intelligence (GPAI).
  5. Authorities of India organized Accountable AI for Social Empowerment (RAISE) – to attract a roadmap social transformation, inclusion and empowerment by accountable AI.

Insta Hyperlinks: Synthetic intelligence and robotics


The uncontrolled re-entries of satellites

Supply: The Hindu

Context: Consultants and dignitaries have signed an open letter revealed by Outer House Institute calling for efforts to limit uncontrolled satellite tv for pc re-entries.


What’s uncontrolled Satellite tv for pc re – entry?

  • The phenomenon of rocket components falling again to earth in an unguided trend, as soon as their missions are full.
  • It’s path down is decided by its form, angle of descent, air currents and so on.
  • Potential radius of affect will increase on the bottom.
  • An affect on an airliner would show deadly for all passengers if the particles is above 300 grams.
  • Most rocket components land in oceans (earth’s floor has extra water than land).


Why scientists are frightened about re-entry?

  • If re getting into levels nonetheless maintain gas, atmospheric and terrestrial contamination is a danger.
  • International locations in International South face disproportionately larger danger and casualties.
  • No worldwide binding settlement to make sure rocket levels at all times carry out managed re-entry.
  • Legal responsibility Conference 1972: require nation to pay damages, however not stop them.


What could make minimal harm?

  • Future options ought to embrace re-entering satellites as effectively
  • Smaller satellites expertise extra atmospheric drag and are more likely to be wiped out within the means of re-entry.
  • Greatest apply: RISAT- 2 was tracked by ISRO utilizing its system for protected and sustainable house operations administration from a month. It will definitely fell into Indian Ocean.


Phases of rocket launch:


Insta Hyperlinks: House Particles


Why SEBI is phasing out the inventory trade path to buybacks and the way it impacts shareholders?

 Supply: Indian Specific

Context: SEBI prefers repurchase of shares by corporations from share holders on a proportionate foundation by tender provide, and ban the inventory market mode.

What’s share buyback/ share repurchase?

  • When a listed firm buys its personal shares from current shareholders.
  • It reduces the variety of excellent shares within the open market which may result in higher valuation and earing per share (EPS).
  • The most restrict of any buyback – 25per cent or much less of the combination of paid-up capital and free reserves of an organization.

 What’s Inventory Alternate Route?

  • An organization should purchase again shares solely on the inventory exchanges having nationwide buying and selling terminals.
  • The buyback might be made solely by the order matching mechanism – the promoters, or individuals answerable for an organization, will not be allowed to take part.
  • The Keki Mistry committee setup by SEBI to discovered that underneath the inventory trade route, there may be the potential for one shareholder’s complete commerce getting matched with the acquisition order positioned by the corporate, thus depriving different shareholders from availing the good thing about buyback (Towards precept of equitable therapy).
  • Doesn’t profit small shareholders.

 What’s the Tender Route?

  • A proposal is made by the corporate to buyback its personal shares by a letter of provide from the holders of the share of the corporate.
  • It’s finished on a proportionate foundation as per buyback ratio.
  • It’s just like shopping for shares on-line by Demat account.
  • The value is mounted and is obtainable larger than market value.
  • 15% is reserved for small shareholders
  • Democratises the method as all shareholders will get to take part.



Supply: DTE

Context: Farmers have been urging Centre to manage import of arecanuts to test falling costs within the home market. 


About Arecanut/Areca Palm:

  • Often known as Areca palm, however has additionally been referred to as yellow palm, butterfly palm, yellow butterfly palm, cane palm and golden feather palm.
  • Stems are many clustered, slender, and generally branching.
  • Could attain 30 ft tall.
  • Leaves are ascending, curved on the apex with sheaths and petioles yellow or orange tinged.
  • Originated in Madagascar and is broadly grown outside within the tropics.
  • In temperate zones they’re in style as specimen vegetation for indoor use as a result of they will tolerate comparatively low mild situations.
  • Arecanut is taken into account a horticulture crop within the states, a business crop on the nationwide degree and a dry fruit in worldwide markets.

Rising Situation:

  • Temperature vary of 14ºC and 36ºC.
  • Splendid rainfall – 750 mm to 4500 mm/ Irrigation
  • Gravelly laterite soil


Points confronted by farmers:

  • Import of cheaper varieties from Bhutan
  • Huge crop harm resulting from extreme rainfall
  • Monetary loss resulting from plant illness like yellow leaf illness, fruit rot illness and blast illness.
  • 35 – 40 % of crop has been affected in 2022


Sirsi Supari” Will get GI Tag

‘Sirsi Supari’ grown in Uttara Kannada district of Karnataka has obtained the Geographic Indication (GI) tag.

The arecanut has distinctive options like a spherical and flattened coin form, specific texture, style and has a tough seed. These options will not be seen in arecanut grown in another areas.


Sahitya Akademy awards introduced

Supply: The Hindu

Context: The awards, really useful by distinguished jury members had been authorised by the Government Board of the Sahitya Akademy underneath its President Chandrashekhar Kambar.

Awards 2022:

  • The awards in 23 languages included seven books of poetry, six of novel, two of brief tales, three dramas, two literary criticism and one every of autobiographical essays, assortment of articles and literary historical past.
  • Tamil writer  Rajendran, Telugu author Madhuranthakam Narendra and Sanskrit Poet Janardan Prasad Pandey ‘Mani’ had been amongst these chosen.
  • The Bhasha Samman was awarded to Udaya Nath Jha for his invaluable contribution to the sector of classical and medieval literature within the japanese area.
  • In Assamese language, Manoj Kumar Goswami received the award for his assortment of brief tales Bhool Satya;Anuradha Roy received in English language for her novel All of the Lives we by no means lived; Gulam Mohammad Shaikh received in Gujarati for Gher Jatan, a group of autobiographical essays.

Concerning the Sahitya Akademy Awards:

  • The Sahitya Akademi Awardis a literary honour in India, which the Sahitya Akademi, India’s Nationwide Academy of Letters, yearly confers on writers of probably the most excellent books of literary benefit revealed in any of the 22 languages of the eighth Schedule to the Indian structure in addition to in English and Rajasthani language.

Insta Hyperlinks: Sahitya Akademi Awards


UNSC decision 2593

Supply: Hindustan Instances

Context: India joins different nations in criticising Taliban’s ban on Girls in universities.

What’s the decision 2593?

  • United Nations Safety Council Decision 2593was adopted on 30 August 2021, following the Fall of Kabul and subsequent Taliban takeover in Afghanistan.
  • In accordance with the decision, the Safety Council calls for that Afghan territory not be used to threaten or assault another nation or to shelter and practice terrorists.
  • It reaffirms significance of upholding human propers together with these of girls.

Insta Hyperlinks: UNSC

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